Despite all the national and international concerted efforts, the environment is still subject to various sources of stress affecting all natural resources (air, water, biodiversity, etc). Protection of the environment is becoming more and more critical due to its interrelation with social and economic development. This interrelation is fundamental to sustainable development, which requires a long-term perspective and broad-based participation in policy formulation, decision-making and implementation at all levels. Furthermore, the role of the state, civil society, international community, and businesses in environmental policy is essential. Therefore, there is a need for environmental policy based on an interdisciplinary approach that links the three pillars of sustainable development, i.e. ecological, economical, and social. Globalization has also added a new dimension to these challenges. The rapid integration of markets, mobility of capital and significant increases in investment flows around the world has opened new challenges and opportunities for the pursuit of sustainable development. But the benefits and costs of globalization are unevenly distributed, with developing countries facing special difficulties in meeting this challenge.
The aim of this course will be to shed light on the various issues within the realm of environmental policy pertaining to the overarching goal of the protection of the environment, enhancing the quality of life and achieving a more sustainable ecological development path especially in Lebanon. The course will deal with the main concepts of environmental policy from both the national and international perspectives.
Temps présentiel : 17 heures
Charge de travail étudiant : 75 heures
Méthode(s) d'évaluation : Compte rendu, Rapport d'observation, Synthèse
8.1 Introduction to Environmental Policy
- Miller, G.T. / Brewer, R. (2008), “Politics, Environment, and Sustainability” in Living in the Environment.
- World Commission on Environment & Development-WCED (1987), “From One Earth to One World”, in Dryzek, J.S. and Schlosberg, D. (eds) Debating the Earth: The Environmental Politics Reader, Oxford University Press.
8.2 The Policy Process
- Hardin, G. (1968), “The Tragedy of the Commons”, in Dryzek, J.S. and Schlosberg, D. (eds) Debating the Earth: The Environmental Politics Reader, Oxford University Press.
- Harriss, J. (2014). Development Theories. In Currie-Alder, B., Kanbur, R., Malone, D.M. and Medhora, R. (Eds.), International Development: Ideas, Experience, and Prospects (pp. 35-49). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
- Ringquist, E / Worsham, J. / Eisner, M.A., ( 2003), “Salience, Complexity and the Legislative Direction of Regulatory Bureaucracies,” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 13 (2), pp. 141-164.
- Simon, J.L. / Kahn, H. (1984), “Introduction to The Resourceful Earth”, in Dryzek, J.S. and Schlosberg, D. (eds) Debating the Earth: The Environmental Politics Reader, Oxford University Press.
8.3 Actors in Environmental Policy
- Adelman, C. and Spantchak, Y. (2014). Foundations and Private Actors. In Currie-Alder, B., Kanbur, R., Malone, D.M. and Medhora, R. (Eds.), International Development: Ideas, Experience, and Prospects (pp. 799-814). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
- Klein, N. (2014), This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate. New York: Simon and Schuster. (Chapter 9).
8.4 The Role of Science in Environmental Policy
- Cortner, H.J. (2000), “Making science relevant to environmental policy”, Environmental Science and Policy, 3 (1), pp. 21-30
- Tickner, J.A. / Geiser, K. (2004), “The precautionary principle stimulus for solutions- and alternatives-based environmental policy”, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 24 (7), pp. 801-824
8.5 Types of Environmental Regulations
- Shahi, G.S. / Sarocco P.W. (1997), “Environmental Policy Options for Health: Social, Political, & Economic Considerations”, in Shahi, G.S. (eds) International Perspectives on Environment, Development, and Health: Toward a Sustainable World, Springer Publishing Company, New York.
- Stavins, R. / Whitehead, B. (1997), “Market-Based Environmental Policies”, in Dryzek, J.S. and Schlosberg, D. (eds) Debating the Earth: The Environmental Politics Reader, Oxford University Press.
8.6 Trade and Environment
- Muradian, R. / Martinez-Alier, J. (2001), “Trade and the environment: from a 'Southern' perspective”, Ecological Economics, 36 (2), pp. 281-297
World Trade Organization (www.wto.org)
8.7 Petroleum Policy
- Brown VJ. (2014). Radionuclides in fracking wastewater: managing a toxic blend. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122, A50–A55. Retrieved February 19, 2014, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.122-A50
- Hertsgaard, M. (2013, April 22). What BP Doesn’t Want You to Know About the 2010 Gulf Spill. The 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill was even worse than BP wanted us to know. Newsweek.
Petroleum Administration Lebanon (www.lpa.gov.lb)
8.8 Finance for Environment
- Annisette, M. (2004), “The true nature of the World Bank”, Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 15 (3), pp. 303-323.
Global Environment Facility website (www.thegef.org)
The World Bank website (www.worldbank.org)
8.9 The Rise of the Emerging Economies: Impacts on Environmental Policy
- Stuenkel, O. (2014). Emerging Powers and Status: The Case of the First BRICs Summit. Asian Perspective, 38(1), pp. 89-109.
- Woods, N. (2008). Whose aid? Whose influence? China, emerging donors and the silent revolution in development assistance. International Affairs, 84(6), 1205–1221.
8.10 Environment and Development Indicators
- Sarraf, M. / Larsen, B. / Owaygen, M. (2004), Cost of Environmental Degradation-The Case of Lebanon and Tunisia, Paper No. 97, Environmental Economics Series, The World Bank http://www.moe.gov.lb/Reports/Documents/27636d4be6fd47289d11ff715e057d2eCostEnvDegLebanonTunisiaJune04EDP97.pdf
Ministry of Environment – Lebanese Environment & Development Observatory (http://www.moe.gov.lb/ledo/handbook.html)
Mediterranean Action Plan – Blue Plan (www.planbleu.org)
8.11 Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)
- MoE / EC-Life / UNDP (2005), Strategic Environmental Assessment of Plans and Programs in Lebanon, Beirut
8.12 Water Resources
- Darwish, T., Atallah, T., Francis, R., Saab, C., Jomaa, I, & Zdurli, P. (2011). Observations on soil and groundwater contamination with nitrate: A case study from Lebanon-East Mediterranean. Agricultural Water Management, 99 (1). 11-30.
- Jurdi, M. & Korfali, S.I. (2007). Assessment of domestic water quality: case study, Beirut, Lebanon. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 135 (1-3), 241-251.
8.13 Solid Waste Management
- MOE, UNDP, and ECODIT (2011). State and Trends of the Lebanese Environment 2010. Beirut: MOE. Retrieved from http://www.moe.gov.lb/The-Ministry/Reports/State-Of-the-Environment-Report-2010.aspx?lang=en-us
8.14 Impact of Conflicts on Environment
- MOE, European Union, and UNDP (2014). Lebanon Environmental Assessment of the Syrian Conflict. Beirut: MOE.
- World Bank (2013). Lebanon - Economic and social impact assessment of the Syrian conflict. Washington DC; World Bank. Retrieved January 27, 2014, from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2013/09/18292074/lebanon-economic-social-impact-assessment-syrian-conflict
8.15 Corruption: The Impact on Environmental Policy and Development
- Coppens, L. (2012). Transnational Environmental Crime – A Common Crime in Need of Better Enforcement. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Global Environmental Alert Service (GEAS).
Environmental Investigation Agency (http://www.eia-international.org/)